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Why are some python variables uppercase whereas others are lowercase?


Why are some python variables uppercase whereas others are lowercase?

By : user7455651
Date : November 23 2020, 03:01 PM
I think the issue was by ths following , It's probably not a reflection of Python per se but of the math it captures. Usually the coefficients on x is a matrix which has a convention of being an uppercase variable. That this is a 1-dimensional example you're seeing obscures this convention, higher dimensions would be more telling.
code :


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Python - need to change a list with uppercase and lowercase words into all lowercase

Python - need to change a list with uppercase and lowercase words into all lowercase


By : Ul Seyha
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
will be helpful for those in need My project is pretty basic... I need to take a text file of the gettysburg address and count the number of words and the number of unique words. I've gotten pretty much all the way to the end but its double counting words that are the same just with a capital first letter -- ie But and but. I'm not sure how to fix this :( Here is what I have so far: , Lowercase the words while collecting them:
code :
words = [word.lower() for line in lines for word in line.split()]
unique = list(set(word.lower() for word in words))
with open('Gettysburgaddress.txt','r') as getty:
    words = [word.lower() for line in getty for word in line.split()]
How to construct Perl regex to replace (lowercase followed by uppercase) by (lowercase. uppercase)?

How to construct Perl regex to replace (lowercase followed by uppercase) by (lowercase. uppercase)?


By : Menglei Sun
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
With these it helps I would like to write a perl regex to replace some pattern to other pattern. The source pattern is lowercase followed by uppercase. The destination pattern is the lowercase followed by dot, space and the uppercase. , I suggest the following:
code :
$StringToConvert = s/([A-Z][a-z]+)(?=[A-Z])/$1\. /g;
CamelCase
Camel. Case
CamelCaseMultiple
Camel. Case. Multiple
How to zgrep an UPPERCASE as a lowercase without pipes / variables / echo

How to zgrep an UPPERCASE as a lowercase without pipes / variables / echo


By : Nurul Syuhada
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
this will help How to zgrep an UPPERCASE PATTERN as it was a lowercase, e.x.: , That's a crazy set of restrictions. How about
code :
zgrep "$(tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' <<<"MYPATTERN")" *.gz
Fastest way of converting uppercase to lowercase and lowercase to uppercase in Java

Fastest way of converting uppercase to lowercase and lowercase to uppercase in Java


By : Rami Alnajjar
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
To fix this issue As promised, here are two JMH benchmarks; one comparing Character#toUpperCase to your bitwise method, and the other comparing Character#toLowerCase to your other bitwise method. Note that only characters within the English alphabet were tested.
First Benchmark (to uppercase):
code :
@State(Scope.Benchmark)
@BenchmarkMode(Mode.AverageTime)
@OutputTimeUnit(TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS)
@Warmup(iterations = 5, time = 500, timeUnit = TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
@Measurement(iterations = 10, time = 500, timeUnit = TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
@Fork(3)
public class Test {

    @Param({"a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g", "h", "i", "j", "k", "l", "m",
            "n", "o", "p", "q", "r", "s", "t", "u", "v", "w", "x", "y", "z"})
    public char c;

    @Benchmark
    public char toUpperCaseNormal() {
        return Character.toUpperCase(c);
    }

    @Benchmark
    public char toUpperCaseBitwise() {
        return (char) (c & 65503);
    }
}
Benchmark                (c)  Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
Test.toUpperCaseNormal     a  avgt   30  2.447 ± 0.028  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseNormal     b  avgt   30  2.438 ± 0.035  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseNormal     c  avgt   30  2.506 ± 0.083  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseNormal     d  avgt   30  2.411 ± 0.010  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseNormal     e  avgt   30  2.417 ± 0.010  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseNormal     f  avgt   30  2.412 ± 0.005  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseNormal     g  avgt   30  2.410 ± 0.004  ns/op

Test.toUpperCaseBitwise    a  avgt   30  1.758 ± 0.007  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseBitwise    b  avgt   30  1.789 ± 0.032  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseBitwise    c  avgt   30  1.763 ± 0.005  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseBitwise    d  avgt   30  1.763 ± 0.012  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseBitwise    e  avgt   30  1.757 ± 0.003  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseBitwise    f  avgt   30  1.755 ± 0.003  ns/op
Test.toUpperCaseBitwise    g  avgt   30  1.759 ± 0.003  ns/op
@State(Scope.Benchmark)
@BenchmarkMode(Mode.AverageTime)
@OutputTimeUnit(TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS)
@Warmup(iterations = 5, time = 500, timeUnit = TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
@Measurement(iterations = 10, time = 500, timeUnit = TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
@Fork(3)
public class Test {

    @Param({"A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
            "N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"})
    public char c;

    @Benchmark
    public char toLowerCaseNormal() {
        return Character.toUpperCase(c);
    }

    @Benchmark
    public char toLowerCaseBitwise() {
        return (char) (c | 32);
    }
}
Benchmark                (c)  Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
Test.toLowerCaseNormal     A  avgt   30  2.084 ± 0.007  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseNormal     B  avgt   30  2.079 ± 0.006  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseNormal     C  avgt   30  2.081 ± 0.005  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseNormal     D  avgt   30  2.083 ± 0.010  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseNormal     E  avgt   30  2.080 ± 0.005  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseNormal     F  avgt   30  2.091 ± 0.020  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseNormal     G  avgt   30  2.116 ± 0.061  ns/op

Test.toLowerCaseBitwise    A  avgt   30  1.708 ± 0.006  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseBitwise    B  avgt   30  1.705 ± 0.018  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseBitwise    C  avgt   30  1.721 ± 0.022  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseBitwise    D  avgt   30  1.718 ± 0.010  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseBitwise    E  avgt   30  1.706 ± 0.009  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseBitwise    F  avgt   30  1.704 ± 0.004  ns/op
Test.toLowerCaseBitwise    G  avgt   30  1.711 ± 0.007  ns/op
Why this code isn't replacing all uppercase into lowercase and all lowercase into uppercase letter?

Why this code isn't replacing all uppercase into lowercase and all lowercase into uppercase letter?


By : user3371644
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
I hope this helps you . I thought that this code will change all uppercase into lowercase and lowercase into uppercase but it isn't working.. why?
code :
fun changeCase(input : String) : String {
    val builder = StringBuilder()
    for (i in 0..input.length-1){
        val char : Char = input[i]
        if (char.isUpperCase) builder.append(char.toLowerCase)
        else if (char.isLowerCase) builder.append(char.toUpperCase)
        else builder.append(char)
    }
    return builder.toString()
}
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